What Is Dermatology?


Dermatology focuses on researching, preventing, diagnosing, and treating conditions affecting the skin, hair, nails, and mucous membranes.

Skin Deep Expertise: Unveiling and Treating What Shows and What Lies Beneath

Dermatologists are highly trained doctors who go beyond treating just surface concerns. They diagnose and manage over 3,000 conditions affecting your skin, hair, and nails, from common issues like acne and eczema to skin cancer. They’re also equipped to handle surgical procedures when needed.

But dermatologists don’t stop there. Since your skin can be a window to your overall health, they can also identify signs of internal problems like anemia, liver disease, or autoimmune conditions. This early detection can be crucial for getting the treatment you need.

In short, dermatologists are your partners in keeping your skin healthy and uncovering potential deeper issues for better overall well-being.

Differences Between Dermatology and Dermatopathology

FocusDiagnosis and treatment of skin, hair, and nail conditionsMicroscopic examination of skin biopsies to diagnose diseases
Patient InteractionSees patients directly, performs examinations, prescribes medications, and may perform some surgical proceduresLimited or no direct patient interaction
Tools UsedDermatoscopes, skin cancer screening devices, lasers, surgical instrumentsMicroscopes, specialized stains for tissues
TrainingRequires a Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree followed by residency training in dermatologyRequires an MD degree followed by residency training in pathology with a fellowship in dermatopathology
Conditions DiagnosedAcne, eczema, psoriasis, skin cancer, hair loss, nail infections, etc.Melanoma, various types of skin cancer, inflammatory skin conditions, infections, etc. (confirmed through biopsy)
Overall GoalRestore and maintain healthy skin, hair, and nailsProvide accurate diagnoses for skin conditions based on microscopic examination

Specialized Training in Dermatology

Dermatologists, whether medical doctors (MDs) or doctors of osteopathic medicine (DOs), undergo extensive training following their medical degrees. This includes a one-year internship, typically in internal medicine or surgery, followed by a minimum of three years in an ACGME-accredited residency program. During this residency, they gain practical experience through direct patient care under the supervision of seasoned dermatologists, such as Dr. Pavithra HN.

Some dermatologists choose to further specialize by completing fellowship training in areas like advanced dermatology or specific subspecialties such as pediatric dermatology, Mohs surgery, or dermatopathology.

Those eligible can pursue certification in specialty and subspecialty areas through the American Board of Dermatology.

Common pediatric dermatologic concerns include:

  • Acne
  • Allergic contact dermatitis
  • Birthmarks
  • Burns
  • Chickenpox
  • Congenital lesions
  • Diaper rash
  • Eczema
  • Genodermatoses
  • Hives
  • Moles
  • Molluscum contagiosum
  • Perioral dermatitis
  • Psoriasis
  • Scabies
  • Scars
  • Skin infections
  • Skin reactions
  • Vitiligo

Although all dermatologists are capable of treating pediatric patients, a dedicated pediatric dermatologist is better suited to address skin, hair, or nail issues specific to children and rare diseases.

The Dermatology-Body Connection

The condition of our skin, hair, nails, and mucous membranes is closely connected to our overall health and can provide important clues about it.

A dermatologist’s daily routine may involve treating various issues such as acne, dermatitis, and burns, as well as diagnosing underlying liver or allergic conditions that manifest as itchy skin. They might also perform procedures like biopsies to check for cancer, remove ingrown hairs, or recommend a Lyme disease test for patients with rashes or tick bites.

Apart from addressing medical conditions like psoriasis, eczema, or cancer, many dermatologists also offer cosmetic treatments to enhance appearance. These could include non-surgical procedures like dermal filler injections, neurotoxin injections, laser skin resurfacing, hair removal, and dermal peels.

Factors such as individual concerns, overall health, and desired treatment outcomes play a key role in determining the most suitable type of dermatologist or treatment for each person.

Treating a Wide Range of Skin, Hair, Nail, and Mucous Membrane Conditions

Dermatologists are equipped to diagnose and treat a wide array of conditions and issues affecting the skin, hair, nails, and mucous membranes. These encompass primary dermatologic conditions, complications arising from other medical conditions, and cosmetic concerns, such as:

Medical dermatology

  • Acne
  • Connective-tissue disorders
  • Contact dermatitis
  • Cutaneous sarcoidosis
  • Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma
  • Dermatitis, including atopic dermatitis and eczema
  • Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans
  • Dermatologic issues caused by cancer, autoimmune conditions,
  • immunodeficiency, HIV/AIDS, and other diseases
  • Dermatomyositis
  • Dysplastic nevi
  • Hair loss, including from alopecia areata (“alopecia”)
  • Hidradenitis suppurativa
  • Hirsutism (excessive body hair)
  • Hyperhidrosis
  • Ichthyosis
  • Immunobullous diseases (blistering diseases)
  • Infectious diseases
  • Leprosy
  • Lyme disease
  • Mucosal conditions, including canker sores, yeast infections, herpes,
  • and mucous membrane pemphigoid and pemphigus
  • Mycosis fungoides
  • Nail conditions
  • Photosensitivity diseases
  • Pigmentation disorders, including vitiligo
  • Pigmented lesions
  • Psoriasis
  • Psoriatic arthritis
  • Raynaud’s disease
  • Rosacea
  • Scalp conditions
  • Scleroderma and morphea (“localized scleroderma”)
  • Skin cancer, including melanoma
  • Skin infections, bacterial and viral
  • Skin ulcers
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, or “lupus”)
  • Tuberous sclerosis
  • Urticaria
  • Varicose veins
  • Vasculitis
  • Warts

Cosmetic dermatology

  • Body contouring, including liposuction and CoolSculpting®
  • BOTOX® and other neurotoxin injections
  • Chemical peels
  • Collagen and dermal filler injections
  • Cosmetic laser surgery, including laser skin resurfacing
  • Facial rejuvenation
  • Hair restoration, including hair transplants
  • Laser-assisted liposuction
  • Laser hair removal
  • Microdermabrasion
  • Non-surgical facelift
  • Removal of scars, burned skin, wrinkles, birthmarks, tattoos, brown
  • spots, or sunspots
  • Sclerotherapy and treatment of problematic/varicose leg veins
  • Varicose vein treatment

Dermatology Tests and Procedures

Dermatologists conduct a variety of tests and procedures, including:

  • Acne surgery
  • Biopsies (tissue samples), such as punch biopsies and shave biopsies
  • Cryosurgery, utilized for the chemical removal of warts, moles, acne, scars, and certain skin cancers
  • Electrodessication and curettage (ED&C), employed to eliminate certain types of skin growths
  • Extraction of blackheads and pimples
  • Neurotoxin injections like BOTOX®
  • Intralesion injections, for the direct application of medication to acne cysts, scars, nail conditions, and dermatologic issues
  • Phototherapy, which includes psoralen-ultraviolet (PUVA) radiation therapy and ultraviolet B (UVB) phototherapy
  • Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections, used to address specific severe skin problems
  • Reconstructive surgery
  • Skin cancer surgery, including Mohs surgery
  • Surgery for nail cancer

Professional Societies for DermatologistsD

Dermatology researchers and practitioners continuously make progress in the field, with new developments emerging almost daily. To stay informed about the latest research findings, clinical services, and other relevant news and information, consider visiting trusted websites such as:



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